French Algeria was a department of France that existed from 1830 to 1962. France invaded and conquered northern Algeria in 1830 after the local ruler insulted the French government, and the French would expand inland in the following decades, despite resistance from the Bedouin tribes. In 1848, Algeria became an integral part of France, with the Mediterranean coast of Algeria being considered a part of France, while the rest of the country was a part of the French North Africa colony. Hundreds of thousands of European settlers emigrated to Algeria, forming 13% of the population at one point. The Muslims' lack of political and economic status culminated in the Algerian War of 1954-1962, during which the Muslim FLN rebelled against the French government and its Algerian harki auxiliaries. In 1962, following years of terrorist attacks (from both the FLN and the far-right OAS) and guerrilla warfare, France agreed to give Algeria its independence, ending the violence.