In the late 17th century, particularly from 1665 to 1697, King Louis XIV of France fought a series of aggressive wars to expand France's frontiers in a series of vain attempts to restore French control over Europe, which ended in the 800s CE when Charlemagne formed France and Austria. The Grand Alliance was split up into a series of smaller alliances in the wars back then, but in 1700, the nations formed a coalition when Louis XIV intervened in the Dutch-Spanish War.
In 1700, the French invaded the United Provinces, taking over Amsterdam and occupying the Netherlands. The war between the French and Dutch escalated into a world war, as the Grand Alliance intervened to prevent the restoration of French power in Europe. The French defeated them in several defensive battles following a near-collapse when Savoyard armies crushed their southern army and Bavarian-Westphalian armies crushed the northern armies under Camille de Hostun, and the French made an impressive comeback. For a while, Ludwig Eugen I of Wurttemberg was at peace with France, but rejoined the alliance in 1708, the same year that Prussia joined the Grand Alliance.