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Grand Alliance

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Leopold I

Leopold I of Austria

The Grand Alliance was an alliance between a large amount of European nations, including Austria, Great Britain, Bavaria, and many small German states. It was founded in 1700 by Leopold I of Austria, starting off with Great Britain, Austria, Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Westphalia, the United Provinces, and Savoy, but later expanding to several other nations. Their name was given to the War of the Grand Alliance, the war in which they fought the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain.

History

In the late 17th century, particularly from 1665 to 1697, King Louis XIV of France fought a series of aggressive wars to expand France's frontiers in a series of vain attempts to restore French control over Europe, which ended in the 800s CE when Charlemagne formed France and Austria. The Grand Alliance was split up into a series of smaller alliances in the wars back then, but in 1700, the nations formed a coalition when Louis XIV intervened in the Dutch-Spanish War.

In 1700, the French invaded the United Provinces, taking over Amsterdam and occupying the Netherlands. The war between the French and Dutch escalated into a world war, as the Grand Alliance intervened to prevent the restoration of French power in Europe. The French defeated them in several defensive battles following a near-collapse when Savoyard armies crushed their southern army and Bavarian-Westphalian armies crushed the northern armies under Camille de Hostun, and the French made an impressive comeback. For a while, Ludwig Eugen I of Wurttemberg was at peace with France, but rejoined the alliance in 1708, the same year that Prussia joined the Grand Alliance.

Member States

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