Samudra was born on 14 January 1970 in Serang, Banten, Indonesia to a family of Sunni Muslim Javans. In the early 1990s he taught at a school in Malaysia run by Jemaah Islamiah, an al-Qaeda-linked terrorist group that operated in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. On 12 October 2002 a total of 202 people were killed in bombings in Bali, most of them tourists from Australia. He was the field commander of the operation, and in July 2003 he said that the bombings were justifiable under Islamic teachings to avenge the killing of Muslims by the United States and its allies. On 10 September 2003 he was sentenced to death, and on 9 November 2008 he was executed by firing squad in Nusakambangan with Amrozi and Mukhlas.