Liberalism is a political ideology founded on the ideas of liberty and equality. Typical liberal views include support for freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality, and international cooperation. Liberalism developed in Western Europe during the Age of Enlightenment, rejecting the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and divine right of kings. The founder of liberalism, John Locke, argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. Liberals opposed traditionalist conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and rule of law, and the ideology inspired the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolutionary War in 1776, and the French Revolution in 1789. Liberalism spread rapidly after the latter event, and the nineteenth century saw the establishment of liberal governments across Europe and South America. After 1920, liberalism was not only threatened by conservatism, but also by socialism and fascism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread further as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning sides of both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence in the world, but it still has challenges to overcome in Asia and Africa