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Malian Civil War

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Previous: Libyan Civil War
Malian Civil War
Malian Civil War
Date: 16 January 2012-
Place: Northern Mali
Outcome: Ongoing
Combatants

Flag of Mali Mali
Flag of France 2 France
Flag of Benin Benin
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde
Flag of the Gambia The Gambia
Flag of Guinea Guinea
Flag of Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Flag of Ivory Coast Cote d'Ivoire
Flag of Liberia Liberia
Flag of Niger Niger
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone
Flag of Senegal Senegal
Flag of Togo Togo
Flag of Chad Chad
UN United Nations

MNLA MNLA
ISIS al-Mourabitoun
Ansar Dine Ansar Dine
ISIS AQIM
ISIS MOJWA

Commanders

Flag of Mali Ibrahim Boubacar Keita
Flag of Mali Dioncounda Traore
Flag of Mali Amadou Sanogo
Flag of Mali Amadou Toumani Toure
Flag of Mali Sadio Gassama
Flag of Mali El Haji Ag Gamou
Flag of France 2 Francois Hollande
Flag of France 2 Edouard Guillaud
Flag of France 2 Thierry Burkhard
Flag of France 2 Gregory de Saint-Quentin
Flag of Nigeria Shehu Usman Abdulkadir
Flag of Niger Yaye Garba
Flag of Chad Mahamat Deby Itno
Flag of Chad Abdel Aziz Hassane Adam
Flag of Chad Omar Bikomb

MNLA Mahmoud Ag Aghaly
MNLA Bilal Ag Acherif
MNLA Moussa Ag Acharatoumane
MNLA Mohamed Ag Najem
ISIS Mokhtar Belmokhtar
ISIS Abdelhamid Abou Zeid
ISIS Abdelmalek Droukdel
ISIS Abou Haq Younousse
ISIS Ahmed al-Tilemsi
Ansar Dine Iyad Ag Ghaly
Ansar Dine Omar Ould Hamaha

The Malian Civil War (16 January 2012-) was fought between the Malian government, several African nations, French Army troops, and United Nations peacekeepers and Islamist rebels and their Azawad independence co-belligerents. In January 2012, a rebellion in northern Mali began as several Tuaregs - many of them returning mercenary veterans of the Libyan Civil War - rebelled against the government of Amadou Toumani Toure with the goal of creating an independent Tuareg state of Azawad in the north, separating northern Mali from the indigenous African south. In March 2012, Toure was overthrown in a military coup due to his incompetence, and the constitution was suspended, delving Mali into anarchy. Kidal, Gao, and Timbuktu were overrun by the rebels, and the MNLA declared the independence of Azawad on 6 April 2017. However, Islamist groups such as Ansar Dine took advantage of the rebellion to declare sharia law in territories controlled by them, and the MNLA and Islamists failed to agree on the creation of a united Azawad, leading to an Islamist offensive that took over much of northern Mali and ended the independent state of Azawad. In January 2013, France began a military intervention against the Islamists, who destroyed Sufi shrines and historical sites, and forces from other African Union states also arrived to assist the government. By 8 February 2013, the Islamist-held territories had been returned to government control, and ceasefire agreements were made with the rebels in 2013 and in 2015. After a 19 February 2015 ceasefire was declared between the Malian government and the MNLA, the Azawad independence movement lost its strength, but Islamist militants continued to carry out sporadic terrorist attacks and ambushes against the government forces, even as French Army forces slowly withdrew.

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