Neoconservatism is a center-right political movement in the United States that had its roots in the 1960s. According to Irving Kristol, neoconservatism occurred when liberals were "mugged by reality"; the movement was born among liberal Jewish intellectuals who became disillusioned with the rise of the New Left during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Conservative-leaning US Democratic Party members opposed George McGovern's presidential candidacy in 1972 and felt that the rise of the black power movement had undermined relations between the Jewish anti-Stalinist left and the rest of the "New Left". Many of these disillusioned former Democrats decided to join the Republican Party, retaining some of the same views. Some of these included socialists who voted for Richard Nixon and became social democrats instead, moving away from far-left politics in favor of supporting center-right policies. Neoconservatives, or "neocons" for short, are opposed to communism and radical views, and they favor the promotion of democracy overseas and the defense of American national interests. Neoconservatives supported the 1990 and 2003 invasions of Iraq, supported Taiwan against China, and opposed the teaching of evolution in favor of "intelligent design". In addition, neoconservatives are known for their strong support of Israel. Neoconservatives are typically affiliated with the Republican Party, but neoconservatives such as Hillary Clinton and Joe Lieberman belong to the centrist wing of the Democratic Party.