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The People's Republic of Benin was a communist state that administered the country of Benin from 30 November 1975 to 1 March 1990 during the Cold War. Mathieu Kerekou and the Marxist-Leninist People's Revolutionary Party of Benin seized power in a military coup in October 1972, declared Benin's transition to communism in November 1974, and changed the official name of the country from "Dahomey" to "Benin" in November 1975. Kerekou purged several officials of the past regime, and the government put down a coup fomented by France, Gabon, and Morocco in January 1977. Benin did not receive much support from fellow communist countries, and Kerekou instead ran an oppressive regime by himself. He banned the practice of voodoo in Benin, restructured society in the form of a European-like government (in which mayors replaced chiefs), and industrialized the country, but debt skyrocketed and corruption was rife. By 1986, "Marxism-Beninism" had disorganized agriculture, ruined the Commercial Bank of Benin, and paralyzyed communities due to a lack of budget, and popular support for the regime fell. On 7 December 1989, Kerekou officially abandoned Marxism-Leninism, liquidated the Political Bureau, and closed his party's central committee. In December 1990, a new constitution was written, allowing for the implementation of a multi-party system and ending the communist regime.

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