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Ptolemies

Ptolemaic faction symbol

The Ptolemaic Empire were an Egyptian dynasty that lasted from 323 BC, when Ptolemy took control of Egypt after Alexander the Great's death, to 30 BC, when the last of the Ptolemies, Cleopatra VII of Egypt, killed herself following the Roman conquest of Egypt.

History

Background

Hekhemmut

Hekhemmut, Egypt's greatest ruler

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon and Greece, conquered the province of Egypt from the Achaemenid Empire, introducing Hellenistic culture to Egypt, building the libraries of Alexandria and the famous lighthouse in her harbor. Upon his death in 323 BC, Egypt had underwent a great transformation. His general, Ptolemy, took over the kingdom upon his death, but it was not until 305 BC that he proclaimed himself "Pharaoh", leader of Egypt, and the Ptolemaic Dynasty flourished under his rule. His empire not only included Egypt, but also all of the Levant. 

Wars of the Diadochi

Main article: Wars of the Diadochi
Nile spearmen

Nile Spearmen

Egyptian soldiers
Egyptian bowmen

Egyptian bowmen

Ptolemy was a ruler whose followers said that he could rule the world, and would lead him to the throne of Earth even if he did not ask them. His people were happy to serve in his armies, which mainly consisted of Numidian Spearmen and Nile Spearmen, plus a well-rounded army of other units, including African Bush Elephants. The Ptolemies were not aggressive, rather defensive, with Ptolemy earning the nickname "Soter" for defending Rhodes against the armies of the Antigonid Empire, led by Antigonus One-Eye, a fellow Alexandrian general. 

Egypt reached its height under the rule of Ptolemy II of Egypt, taking over most of the Middle East from the Seleucid Empire, Nabateans, Pontus, Artaxiad Empire, Parthia, and the Greek Cities. By his death in 246 BC, his empire encompassed all of North Africa east of the Libyan border with Algeria, northern Sudan, all of the Levant and present-day Iraq, Persia, northern Saudi Arabia, the Caucasus, and Asia Minor.

Fall of Egypt

Main article: Roman conquest of Egypt

Later in the century came the Roman House of Brutii, who took over all of Asia Minor from the Egyptians, and the House of Scipii, who conquered North Africa from Egypt, the Libyans, Numidia, and Carthage. The Egyptian kingdom's final doom came with the fall of Alexandria in 30 BC following the invasion of Octavian; Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony both committed suicide after the Battle of Actium, and the Ptolemies were subjugated by the House of Julii, who formed the Roman Empire.

Gallery

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