The Royal Netherlands Navy in the navy of the Netherlands, established in 1597. The first Dutch Navy was established on the orders of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of Germany on 8 January 1488, and the first independent Dutch navy was founded during the Dutch Revolt of the late 16th century, with the national navy being formed in 1597. The Royal Netherlands Navy fought against Spain for independence and later against England and other European powers for shipping lanes, trade, and colonies in many parts of the world. During World War II, the Royal Navy was forced to operate in exile due to the German occupation of the Netherlands in 1940, and the Royal Navy was sent to transport troops, escort convoys, and attack enemy targets during the war. In 1942, the Royal Navy's East Indies force suffered heavy losses at the Battle of the Java Sea, in which the Imperial Japanese Navy sunk a large Allied fleet. After the war and the Dutch accession to NATO, the navy increased in size to rival that of the Warsaw Pact. In 2017, the Royal Netherlands Navy had a strength of 10,500 active personnel, 850 reservists, 6 frigates, 4 offshore patrol vessels, 6 minehunters, 1 support ship, 2 landing platform docks, 4 submarines, and 40 other ships.