Rudolf was born in 1281, the eldest son of Albert I of Germany and Elizabeth of Gorizia. Rudolf became Duke of Austria and Styria after his father was elected as King of the Romans, and on 25 May 1300 Rudolf married Blanche of France, the daughter of Philip III of France. In 1304, he accompanied his father on an expedition against King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, failing to seize Hungary from him. However, the murder of Wenceslaus III of Bohemia in 1306 allowed for Rudolf to compete with his uncle Henry of Gorizia for the throne of Bohemia, and Albert I supported Rudolf in his invasion of Bohemia. The elected king Henry was overthrown, but many nobles held out for Henry; he died of gastrointestinal perforation while besieging Horazdovice, a rebel stronghold, in 1307.